What Does “FIGHTING TILL THERE IS NO MORE FITNAH AND THE RELIGION BELONGS ONLY TO ALLAH” mean? (al-Baqara 193; al-Anfal 39)
“Fight them until there is no more fitnah and religion belongs only to Allah! Now, if they give up, there is no enmity except the oppressors.” (al-Baqara  193. Also al-Anfal  39).
With the word “them,” not all polytheists, but only those are meant: Using every material or spiritual effort to dissuade Muslims from Islam (al-Anfal  36); expelling Muslims from their homeland (al-Mumtahana  8-9); putting pressure on Muslims (an-Nisa  91); doing evil/attacking (an-Nisa  101), tormentors and torturers.
According to the Quran, some of the verses that determine the principles that will be valid when the religion belongs to Allah are as follows:
█ “There is no compulsion in religion.” (al-Baqara  256).
█ “Had your Lord willed, surely all of those on earth would have believed entirely. Then will you compel them in order that they become believers?” (Yunus  99).
█ “And say: That truth is from your Lord. So whoever wills, let him believe and whoever wills, let him consciously deny/disbelieve…” (al-Kahf  29).
█ The founder of religion is only Allah. Only Allah determines the boundaries of religion (al-Kahf  26).
The Fitnah in the verses of al-Baqara  193 and al-Anfal  39, which are about war, is oppression to belief (See al-Mumtahana  2).
In the relevant verses, there is no expression such as “Fight until everyone becomes a Muslim.” The Quran does not give Muslims a duty to make all people Muslims by force.
The Quran gives permission to fight, to Muslims only on the condition that war is waged against them. They can hit back only in retortion, but not transgress (al-Baqara  190-191, 194; al-Hajj  39).
In conclusion, we can say that the Fitnah in al-Baqara  193 and al-Anfal  39 in the Quran is the aggressive and deadly pressure exerted by a society on the Muslims. Muslims should only fight these oppressive aggressors. According to the Quran, it is not permissible to fight against unbelievers who do not put pressure on faith or fight. After the war, the freedom demanded by Allah should be established and everyone should live in peace.